Legal Details for Panama Offshore Corporations

Legal Details for Panama Offshore Corporations

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In Panama, two or more natural persons may create a corporation by executing a charter of incorporation.

asset protection, offshore banking, offshore bank account

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Articles of Incorporation.

In Panama, two or more natural persons may create a corporation by executing a charter of incorporation. The incorporators need not be citizen or residents of Panama. According to Article 2 of the General Corporation Law or Number 32 of 1927, the charter must contain the follow information:
The Name of the Corporation.

The name of the corporation must include a word, phrase or abbreviation indicating that is a corporation, and distinguishing it from other types of business organizations. The usual abbreviations are: ?S.A.?, ?Inc.? and ?Corp.?. The name may not be the same as, nor be similar to the name of any other existing corporation.
The General Purpose or Purposes of the Corporation.

Panamanian law expressly allows a corporation to engage in any business activity. Thus, the enumeration of particular corporate purposes does not preclude the corporation from pursuing other activities not expressly set out in the charter.
The Amount of the Authorized Capital.

The amount of the authorized capital, as well as the par value of the shares into which the capital is to be divided, may be established by the incorporations since the law does not establish any minimums or maximums. The authorized capital and the par value of the shares may be expressed in the currency of the Republic of Panama or in any other currency. The Panamanian legal tender, the ?Balboa?, has always been at par with the United States dollar.
Shares with No Par Value.

The law permits corporations to issue shares with no par value. If all the corporate shares are to have no par value, the charter must indicate the number of shares the corporation may issue. It is not required that the amount of authorized capital be stated. The value assigned to non par value share may be determined in the charter itself or, if the charter so provides, by resolution of the board of directors or the stockholders. The charter may provide for the issue of both par value and non par value shares.
Different Classes of Shares.

If different classes of shares are to be issued, the charter of incorporation must state the number of shares of each class and all specifications, priorities, privileges, voting rights, restrictions or qualifications of each class of shares. Alternatively, the charter may provide that the specifications, priorities, privileges, voting rights, restrictions or qualifications of each class of shares de determined by resolution of the majority of the stockholders or the majority of the directors.
Registered and Bearer Shares.

The articles of incorporation must state if the shares are to be issued in registered or bearer form. With registered shares, the name of the owner appears on the stock certificate and on the stock register of the corporation, which is not the case for bearer shares, however. The articles of incorporation may also provide that both types of shares, once issued in one form, may be converted into the other form. It should be noted that bearer shares might only be issued if they are fully paid and non-assessable.
The Number of Shares that Incorporators Agree to Subscribe.

Some countries require that in the act of incorporation a certain percentage of the authorized capital be subscribed for and/or paid-in. This is not the case in Panama. Rather, it is sufficient to state in the articles that the incorporators subscribe a minimum of one share each. Once the corporation has been recorded, the incorporators are then free to assign their subscription rights to other parties.
The Domicile of the Corporation.

It is sufficient to state that the corporation will be domiciled in the city of Panama or in any other particular city in the world.
Resident Agent.

Panamanian law requires all corporations to have a resident agent domiciled in the Republic of Panama. The agent?s name and address must appear in the charter of incorporation, and he or she must be an attorney admitted to practice in Panama.
First Directors.

Panamanian law requires that the charter of incorporation include the full names and addresses of the first directors of the corporation. A minimum of three directors is required, who may be non-residents of the Republic of Panama. The law further allows for the appointment of a variable number of directors, with a minimum of three (3). In this case, the exact number of directors is determined by the board of directors itself or by the stockholders, as provided in the articles of incorporation.
Director and Officers.

Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, neither the directors nor the officers have to be stockholders. Furthermore, the officers need not be directors, and the shareholders, directors and officers may be of any nationality. The only exception is in the case of corporations that intend to engage in certain business activities within the Republic of Panama, that are expressly reserved by law to Panamanian citizens.
Meetings and Voting.

The meetings of shareholders and of the board of directors may be held outside Panama where this is expressly provided for in the articles of incorporation or by-laws.

Similarly, where permitted by the articles of incorporation, the directors may be represented and vote at the meeting of the board of directors by proxy. Proxies need not be directors and may be appointed by private or public document, with or without the power of substitution.

Stockholders may do the same at stockholders meetings.
The Board of Directors.

The stockholders elect the board of directors, but vacancies on the board of directors may be filled by the vote of the majority of the directors in office.

The corporation must have a president, a treasurer and a secretary. Furthermore, it may have such other officers as the board of directors or charter of incorporation may determine, such as vice presidents, assistant treasurers, assistant secretaries. It is common for the first officers to be appointed in the charter of incorporation, and any person may hold more than one office.
Other Provisions.

Usually the articles of incorporation state that the existence of the corporation is perpetual, but that it may be dissolved and liquidated at any time by the vote of the owners of the outstanding shares with voting rights.

The articles of incorporation may include various other provisions, for example restrictions on the transfer of shares, pre-emptive rights in the event of the issuance of new shares, and the powers of the officers to bind the corporation.
The Process of Incorporation.

Articles of incorporation executed in a foreign country must be legalized by a notary public in that country and authenticated by a local Panamanian consul. Articles of incorporation may also be executed directly before the local consul of Panama since, according to Panamanian law; a consul may act as a notary public.

In either case, the articles must be registered with a notary public in Panama before they are filed with the Mercantile Section of the Public Registry Office.

The articles of incorporation must, in all cases, be filed with the Mercantile Registry in order for the corporation to be deemed to exist with regard to third parties.

The articles of incorporation may be executed in any language, but must be translated into Spanish by a certified public translator. The public deed may contain both the original version and its Spanish translation.

The real parties in interest need not travel to Panama to carry out the process of incorporation.

Two persons domiciled in Panama may execute articles of incorporation before a Panamanian notary public in accordance with instructions received from parties abroad. As mentioned above, each incorporator must subscribe at least one share of the authorized capital. Once the articles of incorporation have been recorded in the Public Registry, the incorporators may then assign their rights to the real parties in interest, thereby turning over control of the corporation.
Some of the main advantages and features of an Offshore Company are:

* Exemption from tax and stamp duty.
* Confidentiality.
* Minimal government tax and filing fees.
* Flexible administrative features.
* Expeditious incorporation procedure.
* Both corporate entities and natural persons are permitted as and/or officers.
* Appointment of corporate and nominee shareholders.
* Reservation of company names can be arranged.
* Shares may be issued in bearer form.

Without doubt, the main method of making investment in Panama is by means of the creation of a subsidiary.

The simplicity and flexibility of the Corporation law allows a corporation to organize in a matter of days, joining an economy based on the US dollars and strategic location that makes Panama the ideal place for the establishment of regional offices serving Latin American and Caribbean markets.

The Corporation Law offers investors important advantages that allow corporation to dedicate itself to whatever legal business and to even carry out operations that are not mentioned in the company charter; a minimum capital is not required to be paid at the time of its constitution, and this can be expressed in whatever currency. The corporation can issue bearer or nominate shares, with or without a nominal value and there are no restrictions covering the number of shareholders, nor a public register of shareholders; shareholders are only responsible for that amount which they owe according to the price of the shares; the directors and dignitaries can be individuals or legal entities; although annual or periodic meetings of the corporation?s board have never been required, there is now the advantage that directors? and shareholders? meetings can be celebrated by telephone, fax or any other electronic means of communication.

As far as the fiscal aspect is concerned, and in line with the concept of territoriality, only the profits from a Panamanian source, that is to say whatever is produced, earned or created within Panama, is subject to taxation.

Based on the concept of territoriality, the following forms of income are not liable to the payment of income are not liable to the payment of income tax since they are not considered to have been generated in Panama:

1. Sales invoicing from an office established in Panama for amounts greater than those billed to the Panamanian office (re-billing), when the handing of the merchandise or products is exclusively overseas.
2. Transactions that are initiated from an office in Panama, but that are completed, finished or take effect overseas.
3. The distribution of dividends or profit sharing corresponding to income not generated in Panama.
4. The provision of services outside Panamanian territory.
5. Interest, commission for financing and similar income received by individuals or legal entities domiciled in Panama, that are derived from loans, deposits or any other financial transaction with borrowers domiciled outside Panama, when the use of the funds is effected outside Panama, even when the repayment of the capital or interest is materialized in Panama.
6. The disposal of stocks and shares of Panamanian corporations, always when the activities of said corporations are accomplished exclusively outside Panama.

A. General Information About Panama Corporations:

Panama offers the most favorable and most flexible incorporation laws available in the world. Individuals from all over the globe who are interested in asset protection, tax minimization, privacy, investment diversification, affordability and convenience use Panama corporations.

Panama corporations can be used for international trade, to settle trust or foundations, to establish and own bank or brokerage accounts, or hold ownership of real estate or any other type of asset. In some cases, Panama corporations are formed for very private and confidential business transactions such as the movement of funds to another jurisdiction for the protection of the assets.

Panama offers the strictest corporate book and banking secrecy laws available in the world, therefore providing legal protection to your assets and your identity through the confidentiality of corporate business and banking transactions. Most other offshore jurisdictions, such as the British influenced countries, have vowed down to recent legislation that has begun the removal of bank secrecy in those British colonies around the globe. Panama is a totally sovereign nation, not governed or controlled by any other country in the world.
B. Panama Corporation Facts:

* Second Most Popular Jurisdiction in the World: Panama is the registered domicile for over 400,000 corporations and foundations, making it the second most popular jurisdiction to incorporate in the world, next to Hong Kong.
* No Reporting Requirements or Taxes: Panama does not impose any reporting requirement or taxes for non-resident Panamanian corporations.
* No Piercing the Corporate Veil: Panama does not allow, ?piercing the corporate veil?, so your corporate books are maintained 100% private and confidential by law.
* Anonymous Ownership: Panama corporations share certificates can be issued in Nominative or Bearer form (Bearer Share are an anonymous form of ownership), with or without par value. Neither the directors nor the officers of Panama corporations need to be shareholders.
* No Capital Requirements: Panama corporations do not require Paid-In Capital, nor is there a time limit in which authorized capital must be fully paid.
* Directors: Every Panama corporation requires 3 directors/officers (President, Secretary and Treasurer). The directors/officers can be either individuals or entities. Panama Corporation?s directors, officers and shareholders may be of any nationality and resident of any country. The director?s names and identifications must be presented in the public registry when the corporation is formed.
* Nominee Directors: We offer our clients the optional service of using our ?Nominee Directors? for their corporation(s). For purposes of confidentiality, most of the clients prefer that I provide nominee directors/officers for their corporations. When I appoint nominee directors for the entities that I establish for my clients, I always provide my clients with pre-signed, undated letters of resignation from the directors so that my client can replace those directors at any time.
* Directors or Shareholders Meeting: Annual general meeting of either shareholders or directors of the corporation are not mandated or required. However, if meeting are held, they can take place anywhere in the world by proxy ? via telephone, email or other electronic means. Any resolutions passed are valid regardless of whether they are signed on different dates or in different jurisdictions.
* Corporate Boo


King Among The Horoscopes

King Among The Horoscopes

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The most powerful sun sign, the Leo, is long thought to be an egotistical sign that radiates arrogance and pompousness. Unsurprisingly, Leo as a zodiac, is the most dominant, creative, and extrovert of all the characters of the horoscopes. In grandeur of manner, splendor of bearing, and magnanimity of personality, the Leo is the monarch among humans as the lion is king of beasts. As many as the signs of the horoscopes are, the Leo character has complicated facets under these …

horoscopes, Leo

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The most powerful sun sign, the Leo, is long thought to be an egotistical sign that radiates arrogance and pompousness. Unsurprisingly, Leo as a zodiac, is the most dominant, creative, and extrovert of all the characters of the horoscopes. In grandeur of manner, splendor of bearing, and magnanimity of personality, the Leo is the monarch among humans as the lion is king of beasts. As many as the signs of the horoscopes are, the Leo character has complicated facets under these sweeping remarks.

Leos are natural and instinctive leaders. They are leaders either in support or in revolt of the status quo. Leos usually follow politics, entertainment, arts, or any career that puts them in the limelight and gives them the power to influence other people. They are most effective when holding a position of command. They are effective leaders because they know exactly what path they want to pursue and how to achieve their goals. They also have the charm and magnetism to attract and command respect from their peers and subordinates. Among the signs of the horoscopes, Leos are the most ambitious and stubborn. Leos treat setbacks as challenges to overcome; they thrive on the adversity. Napoleon Bonaparte, Marcel Duchamp, Jackie Kennedy, Coco Chanel, Madonna, and Alfred Hitchcock are some of their most famous Leos who triumphed to achieve success.

Despite their majestic demeanor, Leos are also idealistic, humane, and beneficient. They favor intelligence, philosophy, and change. Leos are also of strong minds; they cling and pursue their beliefs with complete sincerity. No wonder Bonaparte started the French Revolution, and Duchamp made everyone believe that a toilet is a work of art. But Leos are not without faults, and as grand as their virtues are, their faults are also baser than the other members of the horoscopes.

Extremely negative Leos are the most unpleasant person that could ever exist. Leos are given to pride, arrogance, and quick tempers. Among the horoscopes, Leos are the most power-hungry.
Leos would not hesitate to use cunning, lies, and trickery to discredit an opponent. Negative Leos are extremely self-centered with a greed for flattery and grandeur. They see other people as lowly creatures but they use their charm to manipulate others to carry out their orders. Leos are also hedonists, with unlimited sexual lust and a craving for passion. Extremely negative Leos are persons better off alone if you can resist them.

You may wonder how Leos managed to succeed given all the excesses in which they seem to thrive. Do not forget that Leos are driven individuals. They are capable of controlling and denying themselves to achieve their goals. Leos are rarely so undisciplined to give way thoroughly to a list of vices. Their vices and excesses are usually balanced by an innate wisdom. Among the signs of the horoscopes, Leos live on a precarious balance of instinct and wisdom. Those who are afflicted with the vices also have the intelligence to consciously and actively overcome them. Leos are not called kings among the horoscopes for nothing.


The Rise And Fall Of Free Pizza Delivery

The rise in popularity of the Italian pie caused the introduction and rise to prominence of the national pizza chain. Many of these businesses came into being during the 1960s and after and one of the items that they all used to try and gain market share was to offer extra conveniences to the customer. One of these conveniences was free pizza delivery. What started out as a simple service soon blossomed into a full-scale business war between these franchises. Not only was free delivery part of the new allure but some of these chains also promised quick delivery.

The famous slogan in the 1980s of “Delivered in 30 minutes or its free” became a famous national slogan and one of the ways in which that national chain separated itself from the other pack of franchises. This ad campaign eventually brought this franchise a number one rating in market share. Soon almost all chains were offering free delivery and for those that did this new services offered its own set of problems. How were they going to get the food delivered to the customers? This, of course, entailed offering new jobs to the work force to get a supply of delivery drivers. The method they chose to achieve delivery was to hire drivers with the understanding that the drivers were responsible for the deliveries using their own automobiles. One of the things that brought the free delivery service to a halt was that fact that the one franchise that offered delivery in 30 minutes or its free was involved in multiple lawsuits involving their delivery drivers who instigated car accidents as a direct result of trying to get the delivery done in the companies allotted time. This caused the chain to eliminate not only the time limit for delivery but it eventually also the notion of free delivery.

This change in attitude ushered in the delivery charge. This charge was necessary from a business standpoint because no only did the drivers need to be compensated for their time but the restaurant also needed extra compensation. Delivery of a fresh hot pizza was only made possible by the development of the proper container necessary to keep the pie hot and moist on its trip to the customer. What came out of this need was the development of the hot box. This was a specially designed bag that was constructed of material with inherent thermal properties.


Go Medieval With an Authentic Looking Renaissance Costume Right Out of the Middle Ages

Life in Renaissance times was more then drinking ale and chasing after maidens. Certainly you had the look the part if you were a knight or of you were a royal you had to wear that fluffy white Seinfeld shirt. Here’s some tips for putting together a well thought out medieval costume.

For some reason, the medieval and renaissance times are ones people flock to for costumes. Maybe they stir up, the valor of the knights, the innocence of the maidens the romance, and the dreams of being swept away on a white horse and of course, the huge meals eaten with no utensils!

These costumes are fun to create and not only the clothes, but also the accessories make successful renaissance and medieval costumes. This guide to renaissance costumes and medieval costumes is sure to help create a fabulous costume to wear for Halloween, to a costume party, a renaissance fair, or even just for fun.

A good place to start is to look around online. Not only will good prices be found, and it is an easy way to price shop, but also good ideas to inspire homemade costumes are available. If looking to buy online, better selection and more sizes are available, including plus sizes. In addition, these can be bought year round as opposed to in the store when costumes are only available in the month or two before Halloween.

Some key elements to medieval and renaissance costumes are the lavish, layered clothing for women who want to be a proper maid, or maybe something a little more showy and low cut with a tight bodice for a renaissance wench. Remember, the more affluent the renaissance people were, the brighter their clothes. The poor mostly wore brown, while the royalty wore reds and purples.

For men, lots of options exist. They can go as a Robin Hood character in a woodsy colored tunic and carry a bow and arrow. Slim brown pants and knee high boots would complete this costume. For a romantic renaissance man, think a long, white, puffy shirt belted with a leather belt over slim pants. Leather (or faux leather) shirts, called jerkins, and vests would work as well. The royal court will have the heavier, embellished fabrics and brighter colors like the women. A good renaissance or medieval man always carries his sword or maybe even an ax if he is more of a battling man, unless, of course, he has a bow and arrow. Any men’s costumes will be bumped up a notch with tall leather boots.

A great component for men or women is the accessory, which can personalize a store bought geekowear   costume or add to any homemade creation. Wigs are great for anyone, whether it is long, straight one for a man tied back with a leather strap, or a big curly wig of long hair for the sultry wench. Women can also decorate their hair with flowers or a crown, even some braids with gold ribbons woven through or jewels stuck in would be fitting of the times.

Medieval and renaissance costumes to ones have fun with. They do not have to be worn just at Halloween, but are great for any costume party or a day at the renaissance fair.



A Short History Of The Modern Chinese Language And Learning It Online

Besides English, one of the most studied languages is the Chinese language. It was originally spoken by the Han Chinese in China. There are a lot of regional Chinese dialects in China, including Cantonese, Mandarin, Wu, Yue, Xiang, Hakka, Gan, and Min. There are also groups who still aren’t classified by linguists. Mandarin is the standard language of China.

In this modern age, the number of people who are trying to learn this language has been increasing. This is true since the People’s Republic of China set Mandarin as the official Chinese language. Chinese has always been influential to other Asian languages such as Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese because they contain characters that are also used in Chinese. A number of Filipino words are also taken from Chinese, since Chinese businessmen has been around the Philippines a very long time before European colonization. English words like “tea” are also taken from Chinese.

China is now becoming more open to foreign relations, and the interest to learn Chinese has been increasing. Non-Chinese businesses and institutions are being based in China so effort has been put to study it even if it is one of the most difficult languages to learn.

Since Chinese is becoming a language that is in demand, people are now trying to learn Chinese online. This is a whole lot easier since you do not need to physically attend a Chinese subject just to learn the language. It is also economical and more practical in this modern world of computers. For them, it is easier to learn Chinese online. Many online schools are offering Chinese subjects that produce good Chinese-speakers.

To learn Chinese online, there are some factors to be considered in studying the language. Chinese is a language that is romanized, meaning it used to be written with Latin alphabet. “Pinyin” is the term used for the Romanization. Chinese grammar can be a little tricky to learn. A single syllable or character may correspond to idea. Combining these syllables can form new words, phrases, and ideas. Chinese understand the word by analyzing its context and combination of ideas which has a syllabic equivalent.

An important factor in studying to learn Chinese online is the tone. It is important since speaking the same word but with a different tone, produces another meaning. Homophones, as they call it, are words that sound alike but vary in tone. These words should be spoken in its precise pronunciation in order to convey what was meant and to avoid confusion.

If one is to learn Chinese online, he might receive videos, or charts that teach Chinese. The benefit of it is that these videos could be played over and over again if you need to practice hard. Others offer free tutorial, but others charge for the service. Other offers live instructors that communicate to you in real-time. Looking at Chinese charts and learning a little history of the language could be of help but one can find it very hard. Learning the language online could be a hassle, but for some people, it is a lot easier than to pay for Chinese classes.


Is It Time To Consider A Pet-Related Business?

Is It Time To Consider A Pet-Related Business?

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If you read up on trends in business or home business, then you’ve probably seen quite a few articles recently on the pet industry. To put it briefly, more and more people are owning more and more pets. The figures are amazing, both in terms of numbers of pets owned and amounts spent on pets.

According to the APPMA (the American Pet Products Manufacturer’s Association), pet spending has more than doubled from $17 billion in 1994 to about $38.4 billion in 2006. And spendin…

pet, pet business, pet industry, small business, home business, home-based business, entrepreneur

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If you read up on trends in business or home business, then you’ve probably seen quite a few articles recently on the pet industry. To put it briefly, more and more people are owning more and more pets. The figures are amazing, both in terms of numbers of pets owned and amounts spent on pets.

According to the APPMA (the American Pet Products Manufacturer’s Association), pet spending has more than doubled from $17 billion in 1994 to about $38.4 billion in 2006. And spending is not just on basics like food or routine veterinary care.

APPMAs National Pet Owners Survey shows 27% of dog owners and 13% of cat owners buy their pets birthday presents, and 55% of dog owners and 37% of cat owners buy their pet holiday presents. High-end retail goods and services such as pet spas and hotels, pet therapy and expanding veterinary services such as joint replacement surgeries and delicate eye procedures are becoming more

Baby boomers (whose children have grown up) and young professional couples (who delay having children in favor of careers), are fuelling much of the growth in spending. They turn to pets to fill the void and often consider their furry companion a best friend or member of the family.

So what does this mean for you?

Maybe not much, unless you also consider the continuing growth of and interest in self-employment and home based business. For many people, corporate downsizing, reduced pension plans or health care coverage, outsourcing and the sheer desire for financial independence are good reasons to consider starting a full or part-time business venture.

It’s this combination – the booming pet industry and the need for supplemental or replacement income – that makes it worth your while to examine the pet industry. After all, if you’re going to start a business, it makes sense to start one with a growing customer base and high demand.

Not that a pet-related business means you have to work directly with pets. Or get a degree in veterinary science. Or pay thousands of dollars in fees to open up a pet store franchise. When you consider that many pet owners have higher-than-average disposable incomes and full time careers too, products or services that go beyond the traditional can be surprisingly profitable.

For example, if you do like to work directly with cats, dogs or small animals, dog grooming and pet sitting continue to be viable businesses. But they’re just the beginning. If you prefer less competition, consider pet photography, or becoming a pet massage therapist, or raising one of the popular new crossbreeds such as Puggles or Labradoodles. A doggie day care might be fun. There are even people who conduct parties for pets, to celebrate birthdays and other events like graduation from obedience school!

But you can start a pet-related business even if you can’t stand dogs or are allergic to cats. Remember, pet owners today spend a lot of money both to pamper their pets and to make owning a pet more convenient.

So you could sew designer clothes for dogs or designer dog carriers. You can fulfill an ongoing need of pet owners by starting a
pet food delivery service, or take care of animal waste through a pooper-scooper enterprise. You could write a newsletter focused on the care of tropical fish, or design and sell dog houses.

It’s a purr-fectly great time to start a pet business!


Industrial Psychology And Recognition

Industrial Psychology And Recognition

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In his job as an accountant, Anthony Stirling felt that the monetary rewards for his job were as good as he could expect. What he found difficult to understand was the feeling of lack of worth that turning up every Monday morning gave him. The office was highly efficient but people very rarely seemed to have time to talk to each other and his boss was a distant figure who barely knew his name.

The reason why individuals, like Anthony, need recognition, other than money, to…

employee, recognition, employee recognition, motivation, employee

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In his job as an accountant, Anthony Stirling felt that the monetary rewards for his job were as good as he could expect. What he found difficult to understand was the feeling of lack of worth that turning up every Monday morning gave him. The office was highly efficient but people very rarely seemed to have time to talk to each other and his boss was a distant figure who barely knew his name.

The reason why individuals, like Anthony, need recognition, other than money, to generate motivation in their day-to-day work is not a mystery.
Frederick Herzberg

In 1955 Frederick Herzberg an Industrial Psychologist published his treatise on human relations at work which unraveled the role of influences on motivation at work.

The results were not what logic might dictate. He produced two quite different lists; one showing what satisfied people at work and the other showing what dissatisfied them.

Hygiene Factors

• company policy

• company procedures

• relationship with supervisor

• working environment

• relationship with co-workers

• salary

• status

• security


• achievement

• personal growth

• career potential

• job satisfaction

• recognition

The list of features that dissatisfy people at work could not be expected, by themselves, to provide high levels of motivation if they were provided in unrealistic quantities. For example, if your chair is comfortable and reflects your organizational status, you are unlikely to feel a surge of motivation if your boss offers you the same model with an additional cup holder.

The causes of satisfaction included factors like personal growth and recognition. These, it seems, could only be used to motivate if the dissatisfaction list had been rectified. Herzberg does not believe that motivation is absent in organizations with a long “dissatisfiers” list; he merely points out what we should already know; that attempts to motivate may be wasted if dissatisfaction is not addressed first.

Herzberg likened a typical worker to a recovering patient. He concluded that the “dissatisfiers” were actually Hygiene Factors. These are essential for satisfactory recovery of the “patient” but are not, in themselves, able to guarantee full health. The “satisfiers” list is, in fact, a list of Motivators; those things that really cause the “patient” to push for recovery and to become fully functioning.

This powerful analogy makes it clear that, if the Hygiene factors are deficient in any way, it wouldn’t matter how much effort was put into the Motivators, the patient could potentially die anyway.

The conclusion to draw from Fred Herzberg’s work is that recognition is an important motivator in the workplace. However applying recognition in a vacuum without ensuring that the Hygiene Factors are effectively managed may produce few returns for the effort made.

Herzberg’s findings are amplified by other Industrial Psychologists such as Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor so, although these simple truths have been recorded for the best part of 50 years some companies, like Anthony’s employer either forgot or never bothered to build in an effective recognition system.




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This course is designed for construction workers, foremen, job supervisors, and anyone involved in the construction industry. OSHA recommends Outreach Training Program courses as an orientation to occupational safety and health for workers covered by OSHA 29 CFR 1926.


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There can be a number of reasons why you should undertake OSHA online training.
It will enable you or your employer to reduce the costs of training. Class room training is relatively expensive compared to online training.
It also saves time. Rather than spending t
ime in off-site attendance of training sessions including travel, the theory parts of the relevant OSHA courses – for example, Hazwoper 40 (for full time site workers) and Hazwoper 24 (for occasional visitors) – can be completed on your own work premises without the need to travel to a training site. This is particularly important for employees taking the annual refresher courses.
It is also more efficient and effective from a learning point of view because you can choose the timing of carrying out the training so as not to interfere with other work and you can repeat online modules and assignments if required to help you revise to ensure that the material has properly sunk in before taking the OSHA test online. It is also more flexible because different employees can do different training courses at the same time in the same work area or even work from home in the evenings.It is important however to remember that online training can only substitute for classroom work and does not provide the practical experience necessary for OSHA compliance. From a common-sensed viewpoint, OSHA hazardous waste training and other courses (OSHA Safety Training and OSHA Construction Training) require an element of practical supervised work (despite some Internet sites which make claims to the contrary).


How to Run a Vending Business

How to Run a Vending Business

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To start off, there is a lot that you would need to learn about the vending business. It is a business that you need to get into only if you are well prepared. You should be willing to learn and not be afraid to make mistakes. In the long run, all this will serve you well. Planet Antares vending offers a viable opportunity for someone who is willing to work hard. When you start a vending business, you will most likely be running your business from your home.


Planet Antares, Planet Antares Corp, Planet qantares Incorporated

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To start off, there is a lot that you would need to learn about the vending business. It is a business that you need to get into only if you are well prepared. You should be willing to learn and not be afraid to make mistakes. In the long run, all this will serve you well. Planet Antares vending offers a viable opportunity for someone who is willing to work hard. When you start a vending business, you will most likely be running your business from your home. Whether or not you need additional help for your Planet Antares business, will all depend on the number of machines that you have. Since most operators start off their business from home, then it would be wise to engage the help of your family. If and when your business grows, you can then move it out of your home to new premises.
Focus on profitability
The location for your Planet Antares vending machines is very important. Make sure that you match the right machine with the right location. You can acquire a truck that is fitted with wooden racks, freezer or a refrigerated cooler. This will be used for the transportation of the snacks and beverages. Alternatively, you can use your personal vehicle when your vending business is still new. If you give personal service top your customers, you will lose very few accounts or maybe none at all. Get to know the first and last names of 80 percent of the contacts in your accounts. It is also very important that you listen to product requests. By serving locations with products that they want, it will mean more sales for your vending business.
Health awareness
Health products are an issue in some locations. You can have snacks that are 50% healthy or 100% healthy in your locations. It all depends on the need of that particular location. Schools are locations that usually want healthy products in their vending machines. To get to know if a location wants health products, you will need to find out if the location will need such products. People, who are health conscious, don’t mind spending more money for health products, since they know what they are gaining.
Technology is now being widely used in the vending industry. If your Planet Antares vending business is running successfully, you can even think of installing technology. It requires ample investment, so it means that you should be financially able to invest in technology in order to have it in your vending business. These days, there are all forms of technology that are used in vending to improve efficiency; you just need to find the right one to suit your vending business.


Fun Ways to Learn New SAT Words Without Studying

Are you currently studying for the SATs and looking to increase your writing and critical reading scores? The key to success in the SAT Critical Reading and Writing sections is to build your vocabulary. Having a broad and varied vocabulary is critical to succeeding in this area and unfortunately not something you can or should cram for.

Read a book

Read, Read, Read. The best way to prepare for the SATs, or other standardized tests including the GRE, GMAT or LSAT, is to do plenty of reading. This seems like a no-brainer, but with so many distractions from the internet and television, students today are not reading enough and their vocabulary isn’t as strong as it could be. Get your hands on higher level reading material such as novels or academic journals as you’ll be able to see what proper writing looks and sounds like. As you read, remind yourself to truly absorb the material and not just skim through it. Develop a habit of jotting down words you don’t know when reading, look them up and then start incorporating them into your own daily vocabulary.

This is the time to read all those great books outside of your assigned classroom reading and it doesn’t have to cost you a penny. Take out a book from the library or download digital classic books like Treasure Island, The Scarlett Letter, Frankenstein or Pride and Prejudice for free on sites like Google Books.

Word of the Day Calendars

Wake up and learn a new word every day. Calendar pages usually include a definition, pronunciation, sample sentence, and detailed word history. Discover words that are fun to use and test your family at breakfast to see how many words they know. Many sites are also available to download “word of the day” applications to your computer, receive free in your email or on your smart phones. Slip a sheet into your lunch bag every day and have some fun with your friends.

Play Word Games

Some other fun ideas of ways to develop your sense of comprehension when you read and expand your vocabulary skills are playing word games like word jumbles, brainteasers, crossword puzzles or board games like Scrabble.

Social network internet versions of many original board games are a great way to learn new words and let you play live against your friends, anywhere around the world. Additionally, playing some online educational and vocabulary games makes you feel good about learning new words as they donate to charities and causes to end world hunger or poverty.